Book List

A few people have been asking where is my blog post/series on Windsor, Sprawl, Housing etc. going to be posted – short answer is that it is coming. In the meantime, if you are interested in the subject, here is the Book List that forms the foundation for that work. In the last year or so I have either read or am currently in the process of reading all of these books. Assuming I don’t expand this book list, as for why it is taking me so long, I blame Lucy!


(not really cause who could blame that face!)


Christmas in September… Putting money where our mouths are.

On Wednesday, the next batch of Census data is released and it is the only standalone data set of the year: Income Data…

In 2011, the Census tracked the status of Windsor in 2010 during the teeth of the recession. The question at hand is how far has Windsor and Essex County come from the from that low point. In 2011, Windsor was home to the highest rates of low income people living in low income neighbourhoods in Canada; 1 in 4 children were growing up in Poverty; 44% of single mothers lived in poverty are just some of the top line items.

When mapped it looked like this:Windsor Population Living in Low Income 2011

One of the more interesting maps actually comes from the Median Income levels of each of these neighbourhoods.

Median Income

Obviously median income shows what the middle income of the population of income earners is within a particular space. The scaling I used on this data is a broader than has been previously mapped in our community.

What to Watch For Tomorrow: 

  • How big of a swing in low income % occurs
    • There are going to be major gains in poverty reduction in our community, largely because of the improvement in the overall economy. What is happening at a neighbourhood level? Some neighbourhoods had poverty rates in 2011 in excess of 75%, even if significant gains are made what are the poverty levels in these areas? Are we willing to celebrate 1 in 4 in poverty in some areas
    • What about specific demographic groups in our single parents, seniors and children fair?
  • How does median income change in our region? Based on the mapping above basically 1/3 of the neighbourhoods in Windsor had a median income less than the poverty line. How has that improved.
    • Also looking at the urban/suburban spread. With the exception of Walkerville (5 top richest neighbourhoods in all of Essex County in 2011) how does the core do in comparison to the suburban fringe and the neighbouring suburban municipalities?
    • Gender split in median income isn’t something that I have looked to closely at but it would be interesting to see how that has changed over time.
  • How do these numbers compare to 2006 and 2001 prior to the great recession?

Once this data is available a big thing to consider is how we build resiliency in our community. If the swings that we see are largely just driven by economic cycles the question becomes how do we invest now to ensure that during the next downturn things don’t get as bad as they did in 2011.

So maybe I was grumpy

So last night as I was watching Star Wars Episode 2 (my wife and I decided to work through all seven + Rogue One).


See Rino I have a hobby! Then I noticed:

I have striven to not comment on the CAMPP posts, I feel I stated my position, it really hasn’t changed. In cased you missed it I do believe that a better location could exist than County Rd 42 and the hospital hasn’t been as open as it should have been but that was the site that was selected and efforts should now be put towards mitigating any negative impacts and enhancing the existing system rather than complaining about what is a done deal.

After tweeting on what seemed to be a slow news Saturday night and getting a response from interested individuals I have decided to outline the things about the post that bugged me:

  1. Misinterpretation and a Factual Error

Our map shows the exact locations of the offices of more than 350 doctors in private practice in Windsor. Only 8% are located south of E.C. Row.

This is hardly surprising, because at least two-thirds of Windsor CMA (Windsor, LaSalle, Tecumseh and Lakeshore) residents live north of the expressway.

Based on the quote above and the map that is presented there is a clear factual error there are some issue. First they state that “Our map” shows more 350 doctors in private practices in Windsor; but the maps shows Windsor, Tecumseh and bits of Northern LaSalle. They actually map some of the offices in Tecumseh, are they included in the 350 in Windsor?

Second, in the next paragraph they make a statement on the Windsor CMA. The Windsor CMA includes Amherstburg (see the Statistics Canada map) that was not included in their listing of CMA members. Was it included in their population calculation?

Their mapping doesn’t show these other communities (except for Tecumseh). If we are talking about a regional hospital system shouldn’t their doctors offices potentially be concerned? From my Googling Amherstburg is home to an additional 14 doctors offices which would be located South of EC Row. Their map also fails to show Lakeshore proper (Belle River) which is home to an additional 3 doctors offices (2 South and 1 North of EC ROW/County Rd 22). Although I imagine they wanted to exclude these elements due to their “rural county” location and the bias (which CAMPP transparently shows) if they are going to use standardized measure then they must include all elements of that measure.

I would also point out that EC Row is not near the geographic centre of the region nor the population density centre of the region. As a result, if doctors place their offices to be “Designed for Convenient Access” (more on that in minute) it shouldn’t be surprising that more offices are located north of EC Row. If you shift the North-South cut off line north to its actual point I would imagine dozens of doctors offices would move to the “South side” By cherry picking how they calculate their underlying statistics it can make the issue appear potentially much worse than it is.

 2. Time, Type and Location of Doctors Matter

Although CAMPP states:

Designed for convenient access
The office sites were designed to be convenient for patients with multiple medical conditions and for those who may need to see several medical experts, as well as for the doctors who need to be literally minutes away from the hospitals they serve.

We also identified numerous solo practices and office spaces shared by two or three physicians, most located with patient ease of access in mind.

To be clear this map only shows the offices, it does not show how many doctors work at said office or what specialty they provide or that patient catchment that they serve. This is important as certain doctor don’t have hospital privileges or they run family practices, or do procedures out of their own offices and the eventual hospital location will have no impact on the location of their services.

They also choose to ignore existing clusters that operate in West Windsor near the Prince Rd Campus and those facilities that directly service U Windsor or St Clair College which are anchored in other institutions (they also map a number of Family Health teams/Centres, Maryvale, Nurse Practitioners Clinics, the Health Unit) and would not be at risk of moving when the hospital does and include them in their count. Nor do they choose to inquire about how the development of a mental health and chronic disease hub on Ouellette or the UCC on University will impact doctor office locations. You might actually find certain specialized services opening near these future locations or doctors sharing space and services in new and innovative ways because of a change infrastructure.

This leads to a second key element, the spacial/time nexus of the Home to Office to ER relationship. Research out of McGill University in Montreal when they consolidated their 2 hospitals to 1 “Mega facility” was that the hospital location had little impact on housing locations for attending doctors. They found that although doctors choose to live closer to the hospital than other staff types (average of 6.4 km vs 11.2 km) this location choice was also driven by relative neighbourhood affluence. Although I wouldn’t want to directly compare Windsor to Montreal, 6.4 kms is in Montreal likely takes a significantly longer time than in Windsor. As a result a doctor might be able to live 8km away or maybe 10km in our region. In my brief search this morning on existing doctors offices moving as a result of hospital location change there is no literature I could find beyond “new cluster development” that is often associated with “Meds and Eds”. Undoubtedly the megahospital  will attract some doctor offices and support facilities but the extent isn’t know and it doesn’t mean that there aren’t alternative delivery models that would keep existing offices open.

Whether or not a doctor office relocates will be decided by individual doctors based on their person, profession and patients needs, as well as the cost associated with the moves, distances needing to be traveled and the size and type of new facilities that are available. A simple map and open ended questions fail to address the complexities of the issues at hand.

3. Causation does not equal Correlation 

A basic tenant of any research is that Causation does not equal Correlation but that is exactly what CAMPP is implying. A simple counting of doctors and their offices and mapping it as the basis of an argument without effective analysis is assuming causation without proving or providing correlation. What their mapping and narrative implies is that every doctors office that is near an existing hospital (Met or Ouellette) will close and move to the megahospital site. No where do they moderate their analysis, instead they take the easy way of asking opening ended questions after providing incomplete information and allowing their followers to jump to conclusion.

Undoubtedly some doctors offices will move, but will it be 10%, 20% or 80% we don’t know. What level of realignment is acceptable to the community, again we don’t know. What is the capacity for the community to reach the new office locations, again we don’t know. They didn’t ask these questions or see out answers to them.

If they have compiled a full list of all 350+ private practices they have the capability to reach out to them and ask for answers in a confidential manner. A simple tool would have been to send a 1 question survey to each of these doctors offices to ask them if they intend to move their offices in a decades time when the new hospital it hopefully built.

Instead they jumped to a hypothetical:

The office sites were designed to be convenient for patients with multiple medical conditions and for those who may need to see several medical experts, as well as for the doctors who need to be literally minutes away from the hospitals they serve.

We also identified numerous solo practices and office spaces shared by two or three physicians, most located with patient ease of access in mind.

What will become of the pharmacies, therapists, laboratories, and other ancillary medical services currently located in or near these established doctor hubs?

If the mega-hospital plan goes forward at its proposed site, what will happen to all of these medical offices and services, current employees (and the many nearby businesses they support)?

They do not offer an answer, they don’t provide context, they don’t offer an alternative solution. Does it need to be that way, no it doesn’t but they choose to have it that way because it fits their narrative. By distributing this incomplete and inaccurate information via email and a post on their website it creates a veneer factual and correct information when in my opinion it is not.


It is actions like these, that prevents a process of mitigating negative impacts from developing and any actual discussion of solutions from taking place; it polarizes the politics in our community and it makes people on social media very grumpy.

Through this process both the Hospital and CAMPP has effectively destroyed what little middle ground existed in this community. The opportunity for some form of grand bargain has come and gone. Instead we are left with a zero sum situation where their the hospital or CAMPP will “win” and the community will lose not matter what. The result is the ability to actually organize and advocate for effective mitigation of negative impacts of the hospital plan has become that much harder because the well of good will and public interest have been tainted by information released last night.


Christmas in May…. Demographic and Housing data

On May 3rd, the second installment of the 2016 Census data will be released. This release will sum up the demographic and gender data as well as the types of dwellings inhabited in our community. Much like the first census release which was just population totals and dwelling counts the actual in-depth analysis that can be conducted is somewhat limited.

At a very micro-level within certain DAs it will be interesting to see if overall housing types have contracted or if conversions from single family to multi-family; apartment to condo have occurred. The changes in demographics will also be important to those who are interested in community schools as changes in neighbourhoods demographics can and will alter school viability.

Important Things to Remember

  • Remember all of the data was collected May-July 2016. This means that it is already a year old and it will have missed some of the more recent events such as the continued downward trends in unemployment or the spiking housing market.
  • From a housing standpoint, the vast majority of construction over the last 5 years has been in single detached homes, expect to see that rise significantly in some areas – particularly LaSalle and Lakeshore.

Bold Predictions/Educated Guesses

  • I wouldn’t be surprised there will be a slight baby-boom in the region as good economic times tend to correlate with more babies. We also know from school board reports that enrollment in boards are up due to Syrian families enrolling their children
  • A growing senior population is not a surprise particularly since there are efforts to attract retirees to our region, I would expect greater numbers of them settling in Lakeshore and LaSalle.
  • An interesting place to watch will be Leamington. Anecdotally, youth flight has continued from the South Shore, it will be interesting to see if that has registered in the data.
  • I imagine most of the apartment growth will be due to conversion of single family homes to other types of housing stock.
  • See my population pyramid below to show I think the demographics will shake out.
    • The pyramid is built on a model that took the 2011 population, modified it by birth and death rates as well as estimate of inward/outward migration accounting for Syrian refugees and workers returning to our region after the recession.


We will see on the 3rd how my estimates turnout.

It’s Christmas… In February

On February 8th, the first batch of the 2016 Census data is released. Although only the population and dwelling counts are being released next week, it is the first stage of a year long release…. pretty much Christmas all year long.

What does this mean for our region?

Well the bast way I can describe the population and dwelling count release is that it is little more than tease, offering up little more than top line numbers on population change, its change between 2011 and 2016, dwelling counts and number of dwelling occupied, land areas and population density. For some context as to what the numbers could look like here is the Windsor CMA broken out from 2011.

Windsor LaSalle Lakeshore Tecumseh Ahmerstburg
Population in 2011 210,891 28,643 34,546 23,610 21,556
Population in 2006 216,473 27,652 33,245 24,224 21,748
2006 to 2011 population change (%) -2.6 3.6 3.9 -2.5 -0.9
Total private dwellings 96,483 10,103 13,080 8,832 8,600
Private dwellings occupied by usual residents 87,830 9,901 12,331 8,657 8,124
Pop. density per square  km 1,441.30 438.6 65.1 249.3 116.1
Land area (square km) 146.32 65.3 530.32 94.69 185.68

The key thing to keep in mind when these numbers are released is that there is not a lot of context. These numbers provide us a what, not a why and there are underlying root causes that are far more important than the top line numbers themselves.  To imply knowing the why or connecting these numbers to a specific factor is premature and speculative. This isn’t to say that we can’t infer somethings from the data that comes out but without some of the broader underlying ethno-demographic and socio-economic data or their breakouts at a tract or dissemination area level its really hard to say what the causes or impacts are.

Important Things to Remember

  • Do not freak out a census is every 5 years, Windsor is 125 years old. A under preforming census isn’t the end of the world for any community.
  • Do not let anyone amplify a single line item within this initial data release to the point of crisis.
  • Remember all of the data was collected May-July 2016. This means it missed the second half of the year (auto contracts, hirings, FINA etc.).
  • The census is a point in time, the data today is already outdated but it provides a new benchmark moving forward. All population projections, growth charts etc. need to be re-calibrated.
  • Due to land areas of the communities not changing since 2011 (to my knowledge), the populations densities will fluctuate and people will make big deals of simple tweaking a numerator.

Some Bold/Educated Predictions 

  • Windsor’s population will get back above 2006 levels but the gap between dwellings and uninhabited dwellings will remain large.
  • Amherstburg will see positive growth in the 2-3% range
  • LaSalle will be flirting with 30,000 people with both it and Lakeshore breaking 4% population growth.
  • Tecumseh will growth will continue to lag as combos of geography and competition see it passed over by population grown and dwelling construction.
  • Looking further afield, Kingsville’s growth will probably compete with Lakeshore and LaSalle.
  • Leamington will be relatively flat from a growth standpoint.
  • Essex will probably continue to struggle, I suspect that the town itself does okay with marginal growth (~1%) but Harrow and southern Essex struggle.

Book Review: The Boundary Bargain by @zacspicer

For my birthday I was finally able to finish up Zachary Spicer book The Boundary Bargain. The book outlines  the evolution and nature of the cities and rural areas in Ontario and the consequences  of this divide.Boundary Bargain

Providing a historical overview dating back to the early cities of Upper Canada to outline the evolution of how towns grew into cities and how they interacted with the rural countries that surrounded them; Spicer set the contextual stage for many of modern challenges of sprawl and inter-governmental cooperation. To illustrate these challenges Spicer uses three case studies: London-Middlesex; Guelph-Wellington County and Barrie/Orillia-Simcoe County to illustrate the ongoing tension between urban centres and their surrounding rural partners. Each of these City/Counties face their own unique challenges: from London where suburbanization is being driven by county representatives along city’s fringes, which has led to the City refusing to provide services and to talk of annexation. To Guelph where a cooperative arrangement has been put in place to allow Guelph to expand as needed but questions of whether appropriate intensification will occur. To the Simcoe County where Barrie and Orillia are separated cities on different trajectories with Barrie being the fastest growing cities in Canada and Orillia growing at a negligible rate; within the rest of the County you find that it is split between rapidly growing suburban communities closer to the GTA and slower growing northern communities that struggle to maintain their economic base.

Spicer concludes by looking at the institutional mechanism  that can potentially overcome the artificial boundaries that exist between cities and their surrounding counties. Providing examples from the “New Regionalist” paradigm he examines the feasibility of potential institutional solutions to these boundary issues which range from: basic inter-departmental cooperation to department amalgamation across a region to the formation of single tiers of government.

Overall this book does a wonderful job at illustrating the institutional challenges that face many cities and counties across Ontario. With thirteen separated cities/counties remaining in Ontario, Windsor-Essex, being one of them; the book provide insights on how our region (and others) could potentially move forward to improve cooperation and coordination.

My only hope is that Spicer doesn’t spend too much time taking a closer look at the dysfunction state that is Windsor-Essex, as it will take away a lot of potential the material from this blog.

Housing Stock – Lets get depressing :P

In my previous post I took my dog for a walk and we had a wonderful time wandering my neighbourhood and seeing looking the state of house. At this point, we have to take a step back and look at the City as a whole. On Saturday night I tweeted out the first piece of data from this post I traded tweets with a nice fellow from Alberta:

Before we get into the sprawl discussion we have to look at the state of Windsor’s housing stock.

What is “Housing Stock”?

Across Windsor, there are beautiful homes that are lovingly maintained by their owners that being said there are many other homes that are less well maintained or appraised. When the term Housing Stock is used it is referring to dwellings within a community at macro level, little boxes on a hill side, not individual homes, street or even neighbourhood. This definition is also not exclusive to detached homes, when referring to dwelling or housing stock it includes apartments, condos, townhouses, row houses, cottages pretty much anywhere with a permanent address that people live in a permanent basis.[1]

Speaking about housing on a macro level is important is due to broader conversations that is needed in our community. Due to the unique geography of Windsor-Essex County you can’t talk about Windsor in isolation from the rest of the region and as a result Windsor’s Housing Stock not only needs to compete with but be a superior value to the rest of the region in order to help attract talent and investment to the city. Attracting talent is a complex situation numerous factors interacting to determine where individuals settle but Windsor is the location of majority of the jobs in the region meaning that it is a location of destination for most people on a daily basis. If the housing stock in a particularly neighbourhood or area close to work do not align with consumer preference or offer sufficient value than other options will be explored.

Given that Windsor CMA is home to some of the shortest commuting times in Canada, selecting a home outside of the city or at its fringes carries fewer negative consequences compared to other communities.[2] For many, a house is the most important purchase/investment that an individual or family will make and if a house in the city cannot provide comparative material and marginal value to owners when held up to a suburban location they will select the suburbs.

 Age of Housing Stock

The state of Windsor’s housing stock can be summed up in the following phrase: Generally speaking the homes in central Windsor –are smaller, less expensive and older than homes of the surrounding suburbs and in the rest of the county. Due to the developed nature of the City of Windsor and the natural geographic disadvantage that it faces from the border blocking development in a northern direction, has naturally resulted in new constructions gravitating towards suburban fringes and neighbouring municipalities around the city.

Table 1: Percentages of occupied private dwellings by period of construction[3]

Windsor Windsor Core Tecumseh LaSalle Lakeshore Amherstburg Essex Kingsville Leamington
1960 or before 44% 61% 19% 15% 22% 28% 35% 33% 35%
1961 to 1980 28% 26% 24% 23% 27% 30% 31% 29% 27%
1981 to 1990 7% 11% 22% 14% 10% 12% 12% 8% 12%
1991 to 2000 12% 4% 27% 30% 17% 17% 14% 15% 16%
2001 to 2005 7% 1% 7% 13% 17% 9% 5% 9% 7%
2006 to 2011 2% 0% 2% 5% 6% 4% 3% 5% 3%

As the table [4] above illustrates with greater than 1 in 3 dwellings in the City of Windsor been built before 1960, which translates into 38,315 dwellings, it places the city in a challenging position. This isn’t to say that every old dwelling are poor quality homes to live in or that they can’t it be a part of a revitalization. The various historical “districts” on Victoria Ave, Sandwich Towne and Old Walkerville do represent an important part of our community’s history but dwellings in these areas only represent 4,435 or less than 1 in 5 dwellings in the City core. This number likely skews to the high side as the census tracts are larger than then what most people would define as the heritage areas of these neighbourhoods and likely include types of homes that are not what you would equate with stately historic homes.

Outside of the historic neighbourhood and unless the older home is a historic design, many of the older homes in Windsor’s core are generally smaller in size, on a smaller lot, less likely to be aligned with modern preferences and as a result are not in a position where substantial appreciation of property values is likely to occur.[5] This does not negate historic housing stock from playing a key role in a revitalization, but efforts to revive large swaths of the city will need to extend beyond the minority of housing stock that classifies as historic.

When you focus on the Windsor’s core the percentage of old stock (Pre-1960) is 61%, representing 23,360 dwellings (of 38,420). To put it another way, City of Windsor nearly has more dwellings built before the 1960s than the two-thirds of all the homes in the rest of the CMA (towns of Tecumseh, LaSalle, Amherstburg and Lakeshore with 39,045 dwellings).This aged housing stock in the city core leads to a number of disconnects when attempting to attract people and developers to Windsor’s centre. With the core construction only growing by 5% since 2000, the age of the existing stock shows, as there are few new buildings with built in modern amenities being built to entice people to stay in that part of the city.

Types of Housing Stock

Windsor is by far the largest and most dense area of housing in the region, this is largely stating the obvious but the exact make up of that stock is important. When looking at our communities, single detached homes are the dominant form of habitation, for those desiring a more urbanist lifestyle this presents an immediate road block.

Table 2: Housing Stock by Type by Community[6]

Type of Dwelling Windsor Total Windsor Core Tecumseh LaSalle Lakeshore Amherstburg Essex Kingsville Leamington
Single-detached house 54,615 (62.2%) 21,955 (52.5%) 7,110 (82.1%) 8,615 (87.0%) 11,340 (92.0%) 6,915


6,640 (85.2%) 6,625 (85.9%) 6,615


Apartment; building that has five or more stories 11,525 (13.12%) 7,735 (18.50%) 420 (4.85%) 115 (1.16%) 0 (0%) 895


730 (9.36%) 1,060 (13.74%) 2,715 (27.52%)
   Movable dwelling 15 (<0.00%) 0 0 0 235 (0.02%) 0 375 (0.05) 30 (<0.00%) 15 (<0.00%)
Semi-detached house 3,945 (4.49%) 940 (2.25%) 455 (5.26%) 565 (5.71%) 235 (1.91%) 110 65 (0.385) 200 (2.59%) 855 (8.67%)
Row houses 5,420 (6.17%) 1,945 (4.65%) 445 (5.14%) 135 (1.36%) 270 (2.19%) 330 (4.06%) 265 (3.40%) 410 (5.31%) 680 (6.89%)
Apartment; duplex 3,260 (3.71%) 2,750 (6.58%) 60 (0.69%) 50 (0.51%) 60 (0.49%) 85 (1.05%) 65 (0.83%) 80 (1.04%) 295 (2.99%)
Apartment; building that has fewer than five stories 8,920 (10.16%) 6,340 (15.17%) 160 (1.85%) 410 (4.14%) 180 (1.46%) 350 (4.31%) 325 (4.17%) 355 (4.60%) 865 (8.77%)
Total Dwellings                           87,830                              41,800                        8,655                      9,900                    12,330                             8,125                         7,795                     7,715                        9,865

In parsing Windsor and looking into the core it is home to the bulk of the high rise apartment stock (7,725 of 11,525); duplex apartments (2,750 of 3,260) and low rise apartment units (6,340 of 8,920) are in the core. At the same time, 21,955 of 54,615 of single detached homes are found within Windsor Core which is a sign of the suburban lifestyles that have taken root in our region.

Row houses and semi-detached homes are actually under represented across most of the region, with LaSalle being the only community that exceed the national average. Unfortunately for urbanists, much of that development is coming from new “sprawling neighbourhoods” that are being built on the fringes of Windsor.

When you compare local housing breakdown to the Canadian average and other communities in Ontario you can see the skewed nature of Windsor’s housing market.

Table 3: Housing Stock by Type Compared to Areas outside of Windsor Essex[7]

Windsor (city) Canada Average Hamilton London Kingston Kitchener Waterloo
Single-detached house 62% 55% 58% 51% 50% 50% 58%
Apartment, building that has five or more storeys 13% 9% 16% 20% 15% 14% 11%
Movable dwelling 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Semi-detached house 4% 5% 3% 4% 8% 6% 5%
Row house 6% 6% 11% 12% 7% 11% 12%
Apartment, duplex 4% 5% 3% 3% 4% 3% 2%
Apartment, building that has fewer than five storeys 10% 18% 9% 10% 17% 15% 11%

 Windsor finds itself certainly 7% more single detached homes and 8% less low rise apartments compared to national averages. The national measure for high rise apartments is skewed downwards in that they are predominantly found in cities but when compared to other communities Windsor lags behind many of them.  

If you add in what other groups and Statistics Canada call the “urban area of Windsor” which is represented by the CMA percentage of single detached homes skyrocket.

Total number of occupied private dwellings by structural type of dwelling Windsor CMA
Single-detached house 70%
Apartment, building that has five or more storeys 10%
Movable dwelling 0%
Semi-detached house 4%
Row house 5%
Apartment, duplex 3%
Apartment, building that has fewer than five storeys 8%
Other single-attached house 0%

When Councilor John Elliot in a recent City Council meeting said “sprawl is our future” in response to a discussion around the issue related to a proposed new hospital development.[8] Whether he knew it or not he was right, sprawl is our future because it is our past and present.

The fact of the matter is that this isn’t a problem that will be easily fixed, if it can be in the near term, particularly when you start looking at peoples housing preferences and broader geographic considerations.

Hi Human, I want to walk now!

Hi Human, I want to go for a walk now!


[1] Statistics Canada. Structural Types of Dwellings and Collectives. Retrieved from

[2] Statistics Canada. (2015) Commuting to Work. The National Household Survey. Retrieved from

[3] Statistics Canada. (2011) Census of Canada. Retrieved from

[4] NOTE about data: All of the above data is taken from community census profiles. For the Windsor CMA an additional extraction was made at a Census Tract Level. The “Core” is defined by extracting separating all Census Tracts that run from Sandwich Town to Lauzon Parkway, North of Tecumseh Road with the exception of some minor overlapping areas beyond that boundary. 4 Census Tracts due to poor response had their data suppressed by Statistics Canada.

[5] Grace Macaluso (2016) Housing boom should last two more years, says real estate board. Windsor Star.

[6] Statistics Canada. (2011) Census of Canada. Retrieved from

[7] Statistics Canada. (2011) Census of Canada. Retrieved from